When the Antibiotics Quit Working

Antibiotics are drugs prescribed to battle against infection usually caused by microorganisms. In other cases however, antibiotics can be administered to prevent infections from arising. In certain medical conditions, antibiotics can be administered prophylactically; like when an individual has damaged heart valves or heart transplant has taken place. These persons are more prone to developing heart infections even with minor surgeries since bacteria is lodged from other regions of the body via the bloodstream into the sick heart valves during the process of operation. People with weak immune system, can receive a prescription of antibiotics. For instance, people undergoing chemotraphy, radiotherapy and those suffering from HIV/AIDS can receive antibiotics to support their immune.

The challenge is bacteria microorganisms are becoming tough to antibiotics, since they are resistant. Antibiotic either kill or halt the growth bacteria. However, in some events bacteria become tougher than the antibiotic; the drugs cannot effectively fight them. Bacteria can prevent the antibiotic from reaching its target through alteration of the permeability of their membrane or by reducing channels accessible for the drug to diffuse through. Another strategy involves the creation of molecules of a weapon bouncer to guide antibiotics out the entry if it gets in. Some bacteria are known to use ATP energy for pumping antibiotics out of the cell. Other bacteria can stick to the body cells and inhibit it from acting upon molecules inside the cell. The bacteria can even alter the cell altogether so those antibiotics do not recognize it. Some bacteria employ the tactic of destroying the antibiotic through beta-lactamases enzyme they produce.

The bacteria pick their drug-fight habits through a number of techniques. Bacteria can gain resistance through replication of genes encoding of an altered enzyme or protein from other bacteria, even those of dissimilar species. Other methods include: transformation of the bacteria, plasmid extra-chromosomal piece of DNA encodes resistance to different antibiotics and spontaneous mutation. The bacterium gets resistance gene stuck into its DNA and according the survival of the fittest theory, bacteria with these DNA survive and outgrow vulnerable variants.

Many solutions exist to reduce the pace of resistance. People should not take antibiotics for flu and colds since they are viral and cannot be healed by antibiotic. If patients are prescribed antibiotics by physicians, they should take it until the medication is over. Leaving the medication after you start to feel better enables bacteria to endure and reproduce and begin to form a resistance.

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